Fire Hydrants – Types – Design – parameters – Inspection & Maintenance

Objectives:

Define “Fire Hydrant”.

Describe the two types of Fire Hydrants.

Elaborate Fire Hydrants Design Locations installation, its parameters & Recognition.

Describe the Hydrant operation.

Describe the inspection and maintenance procedure of Fire Hydrant.

Demonstrate fire hydrants operation, inspection and maintenance.

 

  1. Fire Hydrant

A Fire water hydrant system consists of a piping, distributed all around a facility with a high pressure pumping system, for the purpose to provide abundant and frequent water to firefighting.

  • The water main is provided with a branch or T-piece to which the hydrant is attached either directly or short length of pipe inserted.
  • The hydrant is situated in a chamber or pit of bricks work or other suitable material which is covered with a hinged lid, usually of cost iron.
  1. Types of Hydrants:

There are two types of hydrants:

  1. Dry Riser Hydrants.
  2. Wet Riser Hydrants.

2.1 Dry Riser Hydrants:Dry Riser Hydrants Photos

  • Dry barrel hydrants are used in climates where temperatures can be expected to fall
  • The valve of hydrant that controls the flow of the water into the barrel is located at the base of hydrant, below the frost line to keep away the hydrant from freezing. Hydrant barrel after each use.

2.2 Wet Riser Hydrants:Wet Riser Hydrants Photo

  • Wet barrel hydrants are used in locations where temperatures don’t drop below the freezing point.
  • These hydrants always have water in the barrel and after each use.

Design, Location, parameters & Recognition:

3.1 Design of fire hydrant:

While selecting the design of fire hydrant, the given below issues should be considered.

  • How much water is needed for firefighting?
  • How many____ are required?
  • What_______ of hose connection is required?
  • Current and future configuration of fire apparatus.
  • Issues of clearance and________.
  • Operating characteristics of hydrant.
  • Pressure available in lines (How much).
  • What are climate conditions?
  • Hydrant outlet threads (Coupling) should meet regional standards for _______.among all fire vehicles.
  • Shape and access of fire hydrant.
  • ______ of valve and outlets should be clear and visible.
  • Valves and outlets should be simple, reliable to connect and operate.
  • Discharge valve should be specified  to open by turning counter clock wise and close by turning clock wise.
  • Hydrant outlet threads (coupling) should meet the regional standards for_____among all fire vehicles.
  • Shape and access of fire hydrant.
  • ________of valve and outlets should be clear and visible.
  • Valves and outlets should be simple, reliable to connect and operate.
  • Discharge valve should be specified to open by turning counter clock wise and close by turning clock wise.
  • 3.2 Location of Fire Hydrant:
  • Standard practice for fire hydrant is to install at every _____Minor deviations in this space may be appropriate as per situation.
  • Sufficient number of hydrants should be provided for required fire flow and high hazard areas.
  • Safe minimum distance of fire hydrant should be from the protected/ involved structures.
  • Competent authority of fire wing/ department must be consulted to ensure the operational and practical issues, involved.
  • Hydrants spacing should be_____should not create any obstruction.
  • Hydrants proximity to structures protected.

3.2 Location of Fire Hydrant:

  • Standard practice for fire hydrant is to install at every _____Minor deviations in this space may be
  • appropriate as per situation.
  • Sufficient number of hydrants should be provided for required fire flow and high hazard areas.
  • Safe minimum distance of fire hydrant should be from the protected/ involved structures.
  • Competent authority of fire wing/ department must be consulted to ensure the operational and practical issues, involved.
  • Hydrants spacing should be_____should not create any obstruction.
  • Hydrants proximity to structures protected.
  • Fire hydrants must not be isolated by a fence, gate or obstruction.
  • Parking of vehicles Should be at a safe distance form hydrant.
  • connected must not block critical access Vehicles and hoses way.
  • Walls, gates and fences should appear on preliminary development plans and adjustment to the additional fire hydrant should be considered, if these improvements affect the use of proposed fire hydrant.

3.3 Hydrant Installation:

  • Comparison and monitoring of Preliminary grading design final grading.
  • Co-ordination among all parties involved at the building site in fire hydrant Installation details.
  • Co-ordination with utility companies for ensuring non­interference of utility poles, vaults, cabinet’s, sewerage lines and encroachments etc.
  • As a general rule, no equipment or facility should be within______of the fire hydrant body.
  • Plants, walls, landscaping and other materials must be kept_____the fire hydrants clearance space.

3.4 Installation Parameters:

  • All hydrants must be of _____ with ______ delivery outlets and blanking caps for each outlet.
  • The pressurized fire hydrant system shall be maintained at 3-5 bar pressure every time.
  • Each delivery outlet must have instantaneous female coupling________diameter.
  • Every delivery outlet should preferably have a separate shut-off- valve.
  • The diameter of main Hydrant line must be 4 inches (minimum). However, smaller diameter lines may be considered, if 4 inches diameter lines are not available.
  • The main Hydrant line should preferably be metallic, however, if metallic lines are not available, PVC lines may be considered as an alternate.
  • Main hydrant line must have an_______near the Fire Hydrant.
  • Suitable draining mechanism for hydrant should also be provided. Industrial areas, densely populated residential areas, High rise buildings, Sensitive areas and high security Government Buildings may be selected for the suitable hydrant points.
  • Commercial areas & busy markets must also be selected for a hydrant points.
  • Narrow streets in old residential areas and commercial markets, where fire vehicle access is not possible, fire hydrants may be installed.

3.5 Fire Hydrant Recognition:

  • Fire hydrant should be immediately recognizable to fire fighting agencies and general public.
  • Standard color coding must be adopted throughout the region.
  • According to NFPA, non-municipal hydrants can be painted a color that distinguishes them from municipal hydrants.
  • Fire Hydrants must be_______with visible colors.
  • Indication should be provided for permanently and temporarily non-operative Fire Hydrants.

Fire Hydrant Operation:

4.1 Turning On:

Fire fighters must be proficient in operating a fire hydrant. These

steps should be considered while opening a hydrant;

  1. Remove the blanking cap from the outlet.
  2. Check that remaining outlets blanking caps i are snugly attached.
  3. Attach the hose to the hydrant outlet.
  4. Place the hydrant wrench on the stem nut (valve) check the opening arrow direction.
  5. When instructed to do so by your officer or the pump operator, start the flow of water. Turn the wrench to fully open the valve.
  6. Open the hydrant slowly to avoid a pressure surge, once the flow of water has begun, you can open valve more quickly.

4.2 Turning Off/ Shut Down a Hydrant:

  1. Turn the hydrant’s stem nut (valve) slowly with wrench until the valve is closed.
  2. Slowly and carefully disconnect the hose from outlet. Re-place the hydrant’s outlet’s blanking cap.
  3. Re-place the hydrant’s outlet’s blanking cap.

5. Inspection and Maintenance of Fire Hydrants:

5.1 inspection of A Hydrant:

  • Hydrants should be checked physically & operationally.
  • Frequently but at least once a year.
  • Valves, blanking caps couplings, main stop valves & main line must be checked periodically.
  • Hydrant should not be hidden by tall grass, brush, fences, debris, or any other obstruction.
  • Check and ensure that all blanking caps are present.
  • All the inspection record of every periodical inspection must documented.

5.2 Maintenance of a Hydrant:

  • Check gasket in the caps to make sure they are not cracked, broken or missed, if broken replace with a new one.
  • Lubricant any part of the hydrant if necessary or rusted.
  • All the valves, delivery valve main stem nut valve and main line valve must be repair or replace if broken cracked, missed or rusted.

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