Now we will discuss the Water Supply Sources & Water Distribution System. Temporary, Permanent and Semi permanent water supply. And the complete information about Fire Hydrants, Town Mains, Service Reservoirs, Booster Pumps and Elevated Primate Pump Supplies that are used to maintain the standard of world fire fighting standards.
Technology keeps advancing new methods and materials for extinguishing fires but water still remains the primary extinguisher because of its universal abundance and ability to absorb heat.
It can be carried to the long distance, pumps can increase pressure adaptable for automatic control or it can be stored. Therefore, it is important that a firefighter be familiar with water supply. Public and/or private water systems provide the methods for supplying water to be more populated areas.
As rural areas increase in population, rural communities seek to improve efficient water distribution systems from a reliable source.
Sources of water supply:
Permanent water supply.
Semi permanent water supply.
Temporary water supply.
Permanent water supply:
River intakes such as. for example, the Metropolitan Water Board, who abstract the main bulk of their supplies from the River Tames and a smaller percentage from the River Lea.
Semi permanent water supply:
Impounding reservoirs. These reservoirs contain the water collected from high ground, streams and from general rainfall.
3.Temporary water supply:
Underground sources, such as wells, boreholes and springs. About one-third of the total supply is drawn from each source, but river intakes are rapidly becoming far more important than the other two, and whatever the source, the water is gathered into storage reservoirs, where it is used into a distribution system after purification.
The term town main is normally used for a main which carries water from one place to another, from one pumping station or a reservoir to another, or to a district where the water is to be distribution to consumers. Ideally, a town main should not be used for supplying consumers direct, where this is sometimes necessary.
2. Service Mains:
Service main are used for supplying water to the premises in the streets in which they are laid. Their carrying capacity as a rule is no larger than is necessary to meet the very local demands. These mains are generally short in length and small in diameter; Secondary mains form the link between the town mains and the service mains.
Service reservoirs, which include overhead tanks and water towers, serve the dual purpose of balancing the distribution system and providing a reserve of water against the possibility of any interruption of the supply due to a breakdown or excessive demand.
3.4 Booster Pumps:
Booster pumps are often used as a means of increasing the pressure in mains or in part of a distribution system where the pressure loss due to friction cannot be made up by gravity, or where the length of the mains is excessive.
3.5 Fire Hydrants:
Fire hydrants provide the means of drawing water from mains for fire-fighting. The water main is provided with a branch or T-piece to which the hydrant is attached either directly or with a short length of pipe inserted.
The hydrant is situated in a chamber or pit of brickwork or other suitable material which is covered with a removable or hinged lid, usually of cast iron.
The shape of the system is a series of loops, rather than a tree with branches. The mains are controlled by stop valves more commonly known as sluice valve.
3.6 Elevated Primate Pump Supplies:
The storage of water in elevated reservoirs also assure water | supply when the system becomes inoperative. Many industries provide their own private systems. Such as elevated storage tanks, Which are available to the fire department.