Ladders are used by human being since life appeared on the earth and with the passage of time man made it a modem and modern. So it got the shape of escalator and snorkel from simple wood Ladder.
The simplest form of Ladder which was used by a man when one person plucks the fruit by the standing on the shoulder of the other person. Then man moved to the modern world and simple ladders have been shaped into modern ladders like escalator & snorkel.
1.2 Role of the Ladder:
To Save life.
To reach up to high building.
To get into deep places.
To Make bridge between two buildings.
To use as a stretcher.
Types Of Ladder:
2.1 Short /First-floor Ladder:
The first floor is normally used to excess the first floor or the first story of the building. It can also be placed on the Fire & Rescue Vehicle. The first-floor ladder is normally used for ascending and descending the equipment as well as the person doing the operation of fire & rescue. It was made by wood but now aluminum is used to make I these ladders.
LENGTH: 15 Feet.
WEIGHT: 45 Pound.
2.2 Hook Ladder:
It is also very important in fire service. It is called hook ladder because it has two hooks on the head side attached with the arms of the ladders. Therefore it can be easily hanged with windows and other ventilation places. Lightweight, even only one fireman can use it.
LENGTH: 13.6 feet.
WEIGHT: 30 Pound.
RUNGS DISTANCE: 11 Inches.
2.3 Scaling Ladder:
It is the shortest & lightweight ladder. It is used in narrow places.
LENGTH: 6.6 feet.
WEIGHT: 20 Pound.
3. Extension Ladder:
Is the most important ladder in fire service because it can be extended easily.
30 feet extension ladder.
35 feet extension ladder.
45 extension ladder.
3.1. 30 Feet Extension Ladder:
Aluminum metal is used to make this ladder. It has two pieces of 16 feet & 6 inches each. The rope is used to extend it.
Total length: 30 feet
Working length: 28-30 feet
Weight: 112 pound
Overlapping: 3-5 feet
3.2. 35 Feet Extension Ladder:
This extension ladder normally is used in fire service .it is made up of wood and aluminum. It consists of two pieces of length. 21 feet each. Its working length is 35 feet & 7 feet is for overlapping to reduce elasticity.
Total length: 42 feet.
Working length: 35 feet.
Weight: 130 pounds.
Overlapping: 7 feet.
3.3. 45 Feet Extension Ladder:
This extension ladder is made up of aluminum. It consists of three parts of 20 feet length. It can be used up to 45 feet only because when we open its 15 feet length used for overlapping. It becomes elastic due to its length. Therefore its elasticity can be reduced by using two supporting poles.
Total length: 60 feet.
Working length: 45 feet.
Weight: 300 pounds.
Overlapping: 7 1/2+ 7 1/2=15 feet.
It is normally used in Airports, Railway station and in modem buildings. It is automatic and electric and can run every time. It is easy to use we can just put our feet on the first step and it takes us up to the upper floor.
4. Care & Maintenance of ladders:
The ladder should be checked before and after use.
Do not put a heavy weight on it (when store).
Prevent ladder from rain, sunlight, and rust.
Keep it clean from dust.
Proper oiling and greasing check pulley & other parts for oiling.
Do not use ladder affected by acidic material.
5. Appropriate Use:
Read instruction before starting the work.
Electricity may be passed through its parts.
Normally it should be operated by one person except during evacuating causality.
Don’t put weight more than 350 pounds in it.
Heal side of the ladder must put on the plain area.
Keep the head side up to 3 feet from the desired point.
Use the safety belt during climbing up the ladder.
Keep your face towards the ladder during using the ladder. Hold the ladder firmly during working.